World War II was a conflict that involved virtually every region of the world during the years 1939-1945. The main belligerents were the Axis Powers such as Germany, Italy, and Japan, and the Allies, France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and, to a lesser extent, China. The war was in many ways the continuation, after a strange 20-year hiatus, of disputes unresolved by World War I. The 40,000,000 to 50,000,000 deaths suffered during World War II make it the bloodiest conflict, as well as the biggest war in history.
The German aviation industry after World War I was severely limited by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1921–22 the constraints were relaxed and a productive light aircraft industry began to develop. When the restrictions were fundamentally abolished in 1926, several new companies were formed; those who survived included companies such as Arado, Dornier, Focke-Wulf, Junkers, and Heinkel. When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, funds were funneled into the development of the German aircraft industry through these companies. Compared to the period 1927-1931, when a total of 84 million Reichsmarks were spent, funding soared to 980 million marks in 1936 alone. At the start of World War II, the German aircraft industry was the most advanced in the world.
The largest importer of German aircraft was Japan, whose aviation industry was technologically far behind its European and American counterparts until the early 1930s. After this period, a new rise in the Japanese industry was marked by the performance of the fighter, Mitsubishi A6M Reisen (or Zero), which in the Pacific War was superior to its early American counterparts.
United States produced 300,317 military aircrafts from January 1, 1940 to August 14, 1945. By early 1942, factories were operating 24 hours a day, six to seven days a week. By the end of 1943, the industry’s workforce had peaked at 2.1 million workers, of which tens of thousands were women. The Ford Motor Company, Michigan plant, alone produced 5,476 B-24 bombers in 1944-45. The Douglas Aircraft Company production line built a C-47 military transport at its peak, (the military version of the DC-3) every five hours. In the summer of 1944, 15 airframe builders were producing 23 types of fighter jets.
Aircraft manufacturing and manufacturers made a differentiation in World War II. Boeing, Martin and Douglas, American companies had focused on larger civilian planes in the pre-war years, but by the time they became bomber developers, as did British companies, such as Vickers, Avro, Bristol and De Havilland. Along with this, German’s Dornier and Junkers also joined the manufacturing stream of war aircrafts/military aircrafts. The focus on fighters was Curtiss, Grumman, Lockheed, and North American Aviation in the United States; Hawker and Supermarine in Great Britain; Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf in Germany; and Mitsubishi and Nakajima in Japan.
By 1958, fighter jets around the world had made supersonic advancements and a new generation of fighters was emerging. Although over time the Soviet Union developed larger and faster fighters, the initial versions lacked performance and weapon capabilities. In 1960s, the Harrier was the new type of jet fighter which the Britain Hawker Siddeley Aviation was working on. Adjusting the angle of the engine nozzles allowed the aircraft to take off and land without a runway. The concept of vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) were used in the manufacturing of military aircrafts. For the US market, the Harrier was produced for the US Marines and licensed by McDonnell Douglas.
Boeing is the world’s largest aerospace company and a leading manufacturer of commercial aircraft, defense, space and security systems, and a provider of aftermarket support services. As the largest U.S. manufacturing exporter, the company supports U.S. airlines and government customers, and allies in more than 150 countries. Boeing’s customized products and services include commercial and military aircraft, satellites, weapons, defense, and electronic systems, launch systems, advanced information and communication systems, as well as logistics and training based on performance.
With offices in Chicago, Boeing employs more than 153,000 people in the United States and in more than 65 countries. It represents one of the most diverse, talented, and innovative workforces in the world. Our company also harnesses the talents of hundreds of thousands of trained people who work for Boeing suppliers around the world.
Defense, Space & Security
Boeing is categorized into three business units: Commercial Aircraft; Defense, Space, and Security; and Boeing Global Services, which began operations on July 1, 2017. Boeing Capital Corporation, a global provider of financial solutions, relies on these units.
Defense, Space & Security (BDS) is a diverse global organization that provides cutting-edge solutions for the design, production, modification, service, and support of commercial derivatives, military helicopters, satellites, space exploration human, and autonomous systems. It helps customers meet several requirements through a broad portfolio that includes KC-46 mid-air refueling aircraft, based on the Boeing 767 commercial aircraft; AH-64 Apache helicopter; the 702 family of satellites; CST-100 Starliner spacecraft; and the autonomous Echo Voyager. Driven by Boeing’s vision to connect, protect, explore, and inspire the world through aerospace innovation, BDS seeks ways to better leverage information technology and continues to invest in research and capability development. and improved platforms.
Lockheed Martin Corporation
Lockheed Martin’s business units are organized into major business areas.
Aeronautics: with a turnover of approximately 23.7 billion dollars in 2019 including the fields of research and development in aeronautics, air transport, and tactical aircraft.
Missiles and Fire Control: with sales of around $10.1 billion in 2019 including the terminal’s high-altitude area defense system and PAC-3 missiles among its high-profile programs.
Rotary and Mission Systems: with revenues of approximately $ 15.1 billion in 2019, including Sikorsky military and commercial helicopters, naval systems, platform integration, and business lines simulation and training.
Space: with revenues of approximately $ 10.9 billion in 2019, comprising space launches, commercial satellites, government satellites, and strategic missile business lines.
Employees: approximately 110,000 employees in the United States and internationally
Operations: Over 375 facilities and 16,000 active suppliers, including suppliers in every state of the United States and over 1,000 suppliers in more than 50 countries outside of the United States. Headquartered in Sunnyvale, CA.
Avro Aviation Industry
Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer. His designs include the Avro 504, used as a trainer during World War I, the Avro Lancaster, one of the most important bombers of WWII, and the Avro Vulcan hang glider, a mainstay of the Cold War.
Avro was founded in 1910 by Alliott Verdon Roe at Brownsfield Mill on Great Ancoats Street in Manchester. The company was primarily based in Lancashire throughout its 53-year history, with key development and manufacturing sites at Alexandra Park, Chadderton, Trafford Park, and Woodford. The company merged with Hawker Siddeley Aviation in 1963, although the name Avro has been used for some aircraft since then. The operations were ceased in 1963 and the successor was Hawker Siddeley Avaiation.
Hawker Siddeley Aviation
One of the best-known names in the aviation industry: Hawker Siddeley was made up of Hawker Aircraft Company and Armstrong Siddeley Development Corporation, as well as AV Roe and Sir WG Armstrong-Whitworth Aircraft Company. Eventually, the group grew further with the consolidation of the industry, forcing De Havilland and Blackburn to become part of the Hawker Siddeley group. Hawker Siddeley Aviation Limited was the aeronautical identity of the Hawker Siddeley group between 1948 and 1959.
Shortly after the acquisition of Folland Aircraft in 1959, the government put tremendous pressure on all aviation companies to rationalize an industry in which “too many companies were fighting for fewer and fewer contracts.”
From this controversial policy arose the decision to offer only new government contracts and development grants to organizations that had been formed by various mergers and acquisitions. This resulted in 2 large consortia, British Aircraft Corporation and Hawker Siddeley Aviation.
Hawker Siddeley Aircraft was already well established as a major aircraft manufacturer like Hunter when it merged with De Havilland Aircraft Company and Blackburn Aircraft Company in 1960. Although the various parties continued to produce planes under their brands, it was a very short respite duration for these famous names in aviation.
In 1963, and after a period of reorganization, the Hawker Siddeley Group was formed, which led to the rebranding of the company’s constituent products as Hawker Siddeley or “HS” types.
In 1969, nine years before his death, Willy Messerschmitt laid the groundwork for the Messerschmitt Foundation with his close friend and advisor, Dr. Hans Heinrich Ritter von Srbik. As Messerschmitt had no children, he wanted to bequeath his shares in Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm GmbH to the foundation. The main objective of the foundation was the preservation and maintenance of German artistic and cultural monuments in Germany and abroad, as well as the promotion of young talents in the field of aviation, two aspirations very close to the heart of the brilliant engineer.